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This Research Report is the product of a review of the legal regime for permit/licensing/certification of businesses to enable them operate in Ghana, and administration of questionnaires and interviews to ascertain the actual cost of administrative corruption and confirm implementation of certain parts of the recommendations contained in the PEF Research Report 

The research analysis of administration of questionnaire on the cost of corruption and stakeholder engagements on research findings on the cost of corruption in the licensing regime for businesses in Ghana.

Business Owners, Observers and Staff of Administering agencies recognize that “facilitation fees”, (unofficial payments) that they make to staff of the Administering Agencies to avoid delays in the licensing regime constitutes administrative corruption. The givers justified their actions on the grounds of wanting to avoid unnecessary delays and its attendant costs to their businesses, and staff of Administering agencies justified taking these fees for personal use or as transportation to the field, which indeed facilitates the process. 


Administrative corruption is generally defined as profiteering from public posts. It includes a public officer’s abuse of roles, powers, or resources in public bureaucracies.3 Ghana law defines a public official to include any person holding an office by election or appointment under any enactment or under powers conferred by any enactment.

Employees of Administering Agencies are therefore “public officers” for purposes of administrative corruption as these persons are appointed under an enactment and exercise their powers pursuant to an enactment.

A public officer who, to do or for doing an act required of him or her as a public officer, secretly accepts, or agrees or offers secretly to accept any valuable consideration for his or her personal benefit is presumed by law to have acted corruptly. The presumption of corruption by a public officer therefore applies irrespective of whether the valuable consideration was received before or after the act by the public officer on account of the public office.

The process of acquiring licenses and permits for business operations are key determinant of private sector development and economic growth and for that matter, the nature and mode of implementation of these licenses and permits have great effects on the private sector. Any delays caused in acquiring these licenses and permits add to the cost of doing business.


The Private Sector is that part of an economy that is neither owned nor controlled by the state or Government but, is run, by individuals (Investopedia, 2016). The private sector therefore encompasses all profit making businesses and, to stretch the definition, all not-for-profit and charitable entities which, like the private sector, is not owned or controlled by the Government, formally known as the Voluntary sector.

The ICT Industry comprises telecommunications operators, internet service providers, VSAT data operators, software manufacturers, broadcast institutions, ICT education providers, internet cafés, etc. Generally, the Ministry of Communications and the National Communications Authority (NCA) oversee activities in the sector. They have established the necessary legal and regulatory framework which guarantees the safety of investments in the ICT industry Accra lies at the heart of the ICT industry as it hosts the headquarters and branches of many ICT companies as well as associated infrastructure and support companies.

Ghanaian timber is highly valued for its durability and aesthetic appearance. It is used in the manufacture of products such as floorings, furniture, carvings, toys, Mouldings, rafters, sea defense walls, wall cladding piers, and railway sleepers, among other items.

Ghana's utilities sector includes the Water, Sanitation and Electricity Sectors. Ghana water sector is segmented into two parts and are identified as the Urban Water sector and Community Water sector. The Urban Water sector comprises about 87 cities and towns where the national water utility- the Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) owns and manages water supply. The sector is under the dual authority of the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH) and of the Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Environment (MLGRDE).

The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a multibillion-dollar industry that depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance and direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, management, marketing, and human resources etc.) Tourism on the other hand is travel for pleasure; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveler's country.

The Ghanaian real estate market has seen significant expansion due to the rapid growth of the Ghanaian economy and the influx of foreign investors into the country. Demand for various types of properties is on the increase and there are high prospects for companies already operating in the industry as well as those seeking to enter the industry. Immense opportunities exist in the construction of residential houses, industrial and commercial houses as well as shopping centres, hotels, and hostels for tertiary institutions.

As an umbrella private sector business association charged with the responsibility of private sector business development in this country, the Private Enterprise Foundation (PEF) is concerne9 about the low patronage of Made-in-Ghana goods. There seems to be an unexplained preference for foreign goods, as opposed to locally manufactured goods. Such consumer attitudes impact negatively on the growth of local industries and the situation

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